The T-80U main battle tank is a further development of the T-80. It entered service with the Soviet Army in 1985. Currently this main battle tank is in service with Russia, China (50), Cyprus (27) and South Korea (33). Production of T-80 series main battle tanks ceased in Russia in 1992, however its development and production continued in Ukraine. Due to expensive maintenance Russian Army plans to retire all T-80 series tanks by 2015.
The T-80U has a welded hull and cast turret. Armor of this MBT was improved comparing with the previous version. It features composite armor and is fitted with built-in Kontakt-5 ERA blocks. It is estimated that armor protection of the T-80U is equal to 900 mm against HEAT rounds and 1 100 mm against projectiles. This main battle tank is also fitted with automatic fire suppression and NBC protection systems.
The T-80U is armed with a fully-stabilized 125-mm smoothbore gun, fitted with an autoloader. It fires armor-piercing, APDS, HEAT and HE-FRAG rounds. It can also launch 9M119 Refleks (NATO designation AT-11 Sniper) anti-tank guided missiles in the same manner as ordinary projectiles. This missile has a maximum range of 5 km and can target low-flying helicopters. Missile has a semi-automatic laser guidance and has a hit probability of 0.8 at 4 000 m range and 0.7 at 5 000 m. Maximum rate of fire is 6 - 8 rounds per minute. Effective range of fire with APFSDS round is 2 000 - 3 000 m day and 2 000 - 2 600 at night. Armor penetration is about 590 - 630 mm at 2 000 m range.
Secondary armament consists of 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun and 12.7-mm MG, mounted on top of the roof.
The T-80U MBT is powered by the GTD-1250 gas turbine engine, developing 1 250 hp. Tanks produced before 1990s were fitted with the GTD-1000TF gas turbine engine, developing 1 100 hp. It is a multi-fuel engine, which can run on kerosene, diesel, petrol or aviation fuel. It has servicing intervals significantly longer than of diesel engines, however is troublesome to maintain and has very high fuel consumption comparing with diesels. This engine can be replaced in field conditions within 3 hours. Vehicle is also equipped with auxiliary power unit, which powers main systems when the tank is stationary.
T-80UK command tank;
T-80UM-1 Bars developed mainly for export. It is more capable and better protected variant, fitted with improved fire control system;
T-90 uses complete turret of the T-80U;
T-80UD Ukrainian variant of the T-80U, fitted with more fuel efficient diesel engine instead of the gas turbine;
BREM-80U armored recovery vehicle, specially designed to support the T-80U units. There were no production orders for this vehicle.
Entered service 1985
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 46 t
Length (gun forward) 9.56 m
Hull length 7 m
Width 3.6 m
Height 2.2 m
Main gun 125-mm smoothbore
ATGW AT-11 Sniper
Machine guns 1 x 7.62-mm, 1 x 12.7-mm
Elevation range ?
Traverse range 360 degrees
Main gun 45 rounds
Machine guns ?
Engine GTD-1250 gas turbine engine
Engine power 1 250 hp
Maximum road speed 65 - 70 km/h
Range 400 km
Side slope 40%
Vertical step 1 m
Trench 2.85 m
Fording 1.8 m
Fording (with preparation) 5 m